History of the Quran:
“Reading” The Quran is the “Word of God” to Islam. About 4/5 the length of the New Testament. Muslims believe the identical book is in Heaven and Allah sent the angel Gabriel to Mohammed to reveal his “Word”. The Quran is divided into 114 chapters or Surahs. The Surahs are revelations given to Mohammed during his 23 years of “Prophethood” from 610 AD to 632 AD.
The Quran, composed during Mohammed’s lifetime corresponds to the time and circumstances of his life. The Surahs or chapters can be divided into three time periods.
The earliest Surahs are the shortest and known as Early Meccan, and date from 610 to 622 AD. Composed in Mecca, prior to Hejira where Mohammed fled to Medina in September 622 AD.
The Median Surahs were composed during the time Muslims controlled the city of Medina. They date from 622 to 630 AD. The doctrine of Jihad was introduced as war was waged against Mecca and its idol worshipers. Animosity toward the Jews and Christians increased as they rejected Mohammed as a prophet from God.
Late Meccan Surahs were between 630 and 632 AD. The last 2 years of Mohammed’s life after Mecca surrendered to his authority.
Surahs were at this time not collected in one book but were memorized and collected on various items. In the battle of Yamamah in 633 AD many of the Hafiz died. The Hafiz were Muslims who had committed much of the Quran to memory. With the urging of Umar, Zayd ibn Thabit, one of Mohammed most trusted secretaries was appointed to the task of collecting the Quran into one book. Still later after different versions of the quran began to appear Zayd was put in charge of collecting all the Qurans throughout the Muslim world and issuing an authorized copy in the place of ones collected.
The Quran makes the appeal to its beauty and consistency with previous ******ures as proof of its inspiration.
23 And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Surah like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true.
24 But if ye cannot - and of a surety ye cannot - then fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones - which is prepared for those who reject Faith. Surah 2:23-24
Tradition” After the death of Mohammed, his followers collected his sayings and actions in books to guide and direct their beliefs. They give additional meaning behind the Surahs and help interpret their meanings. The most respected Hadith are Bukari, and Muslim. Muslims do not feel the Hadith is the “Word of God”. They would compare the Hadith, to the Gospels, which reports what Jesus said. The Quran is the Word of God from Heaven via Gabriel.
Who is a Muslim: A Muslim is someone who has submitted to Allah. One submits to Allah by confession of the Shahada or the 5 pillars of faith. Besides the five major beliefs or doctrines in Islam, there are these are observances in Islam which are foundational practices or duties every Muslim must observe.
The Five Pillars of Faith
1. “The Confession” "La ilaha illa llah" "There is no God but God." The Shahada, (Testimoney)
Kalima There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah.
2. Salat Prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca
3. Zakat Almsgiving
4. Fasting during the month of Ramadan, from sun-up till sundown.
5. Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca once a lifetime
The Beliefs of Islam
The Five Articles of Faith
1. God: There is only one true God and his name is Allah. Allah is all knowing, all-powerful and sovereign judge. Yet Allah is not a personal God, for he is so far above man in every way that he is not personally knowable. The emphasis of the God of Islam is on judgment and power, not grace and mercy. To the Muslim mind, calling God father means God connotes sexual relationship.
255 Allah! there is no god but He, the living, the self subsisting, eternal. No slumber can seize him nor heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in his presence except as he permitteth? he knoweth what (appeareth to his creatures as) before or after or behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of his knowledge except as he willeth. His throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and he feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for he is the most high, the supreme (in glory).Surah 2:255
2. Angels: Angels in Islam serve Allah’s will such as Gabriel delivering the Koran to Mohammed. Angels do not perform any bodily functions (sexual, eating., etc) as they are created of light. Angels serve different purposes; each person has two recording angels who record his/her good or bad deeds.
Jinn : Are spiritual beings created out of fire….who are ranked between angels and men and can be either good or bad. Satan was a Jinn and not a fallen angel according to Islam.
27 And the Jinn race, we had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind.
Satan: A Jinn who refused to fall prostrate before Adam after he was created. He is the leader of evil ones in the world.
50. And (remember) when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before Adam,
and they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He was of the Jinn, so he
rebelled against his Lord's command. Will ye choose him and his seed for
your protecting friends instead of Me, when they are an enemy unto you?
Calamitous is the exchange for evil doers!
3. ******ure: There are four inspired books in Islam: Quran, Torah, Ingil and Zabur. The Torah, Ingil and Zabur: “Books of Moses, The Gospel of Jesus, and Psalms of David” These are books mentioned in the Koran as God’s Word but most Moslems feel the current books are corrupt. For this reason Allah gave Mohammed the “Quran”. Many Muslims try to find Mohammed in the Bible and feel he is referred to in Deuteronomy 18:16, John 14:6.
4. Prophets: In Islam God has spoken through numerous prophets down through the centuries, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. The greatest prophet and the last prophet is Muhammmad, he is the seal of the prophets.
163 We have sent thee inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him: We sent inspiration to Abraham, ismail Ismaÿil, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms.
164 Of some messengers We have already told thee the story; of others We have not- and to Moses Allah spoke direct-
5. Last Days: The last days will be a time of Ressurrection and judgment.:
Resurrection: Everybody will be resurrected to stand before Allah to be judged in the Last Day. Those who follow Allah and Mohammed will go to Paradise others will go to Hell. Everybody will pass through Hell and even some Muslim will spend time in Hell till their sins are burned away and Mohammad intercedes for them.
Hell: Hell is a place of Allah judgment where Muslims will spend sometime before entering paradise, unbelievers will have no escape. Muslim’s believe Mohammed will intercede for them and deliver them from Hell.
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: The (permanent) inhabitants of the Fire are those who are doomed to it, and verily they would neither die nor live in it (quran al-QurŸan, xx.47; liiixii.13). But the people whom the Fire would afflict (temporarily) on account of their sins, or so said (the narrator) "on account of their misdeeds," He would cause them to die till they would be turned into charcoal. Then they would be granted intercession and would be brought in groups and would be spread on the rivers of Paradise and then it would be said: O inhabitants of Paradise, pour water over them; then they would sprout forth like the sprouting of seed in the silt carried by flood. A man among the people said: (It appears) as if the Messenger of Allah lived in the steppe.
AL-MUWATTA of Imam Malik (Hadith)
Abdullah ibn Abbas
Then I saw the Fire - and I have never seen anything more hideous than what I saw today - and I saw that most of its people were women.'
They said, 'Why, Messenger of Allah?'
He said, 'Because of their ungratefulness (kufr),'
Someone said, 'Are they ungrateful to Allah?'
He said, 'They are ungrateful to their husbands and they are ungrateful for good behaviour (towards them). Even if you were to behave well towards one of them for a whole lifetime and then she were to see you do something (that she did not like) she would say that she had never seen anything good from you.'"
Paradise: Described in the Quaran as place underneath the Earth that flows with rivers of wine and “wide eyed” virgins of beauty.
And round about them will (serve) youths of perpetual (freshness): If thou seest them, thou wouldst think them scattered Pearls.
20 And when thou lookest, it is there thou wilt see a Bliss and a Realm Magnificent.
21 Upon them will be green Garments of fine silk and heavy brocade, and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver; and their Lord will give to them to drink of a Wine Pure and Holy.
22 Verily this is a Reward for you, and your Endeavour is accepted and recognized.
Surah 76:19-22 See Also Surah 2:25,